The Chinese government said it would apply tariffs on 5,200 US imports of various products worth about $60 billion, also effective on Monday.
The General Administration of Customs said it started collecting additional taxes of 5 to 10 percent on a list of thousands of American goods at noon Monday, ratcheting up their fight over Beijing's technology policy.
U.S. tariffs on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods and retaliatory tariffs by Beijing on $60 billion worth of USA products took effect at midday Asian time, though the initial level of the duties was not as high as earlier feared. American officials say Chinese plans for state-led development of global competitors in robotics and other technologies violate its market-opening obligations and might erode USA industrial leadership.
Earlier, the two sides imposed 25 per cent penalties on $34 billion of each other's goods in July and another $16 billion in August.
The U.S. official on Friday said there was no date set for next round of talks, and the Wall Street Journal reported China has decided not to send a trade delegation this month.
"Since the new United States administration took office in 2017, under the slogan of "America First", the U.S. has abandoned the basic norms of worldwide exchanges such as mutual respect and equal consultation, and implemented unilateralism, protectionism and economic hegemonism", it said.
"Following President Trump's threat of further escalation, we now think the probability that all imports from China will ultimately be subject to tariffs has risen to 60 percent", the bank's analysts wrote in a research note, quoted by media. To the contrary, Trump has claimed that his tariffs are meant to protect and support American industry.
Chinese regulators have tried to cushion the blow on their own economy by targeting American goods such as soybeans, natural gas, fruit, whisky and automobiles that are available from Europe, Latin America and other Asian countries.
America has defended its policy, saying it is responding to Chinese state backing if its industries, which goes against global trade rules. China has promised to respond with tariffs on $60 billion worth of U.S. imports.
It affirmed China's stance that it is a developing country, a claim that rankles Washington, Europe and other trading partners. The company said prices for items ranging from food to auto seats to luggage to gas grills and Christmas lights, could increase in price by anywhere between 10 percent to 25 percent.
In a white paper released by the official Xinhua News Agency on Monday, Beijing said Trump's "America first" economic policy and punitive tariffs on Chinese products had "greatly undermined" bilateral economic ties and threatened the world's multilateral system of trade. But businesspeople who have met senior planners say they express no willingness even to discuss changes to technology development plans.
Trump has hit 12 percent of total USA imports this year alone.
This equates to nearly half of all of China's imports to the USA subject to new duties. The duties on $200 billion worth of imports came into effect just after midnight on Monday morning Washington time.