The Saudi Foreign Minister said his country was targeted by a total of 80 ballistic missiles fired by Yemen's Iranian-backed Shiite militia since the Kingdom in 2015 led a coalition to fight them alongside the internationally recognized government there.
Both Iraq and Lebanon were represented at the meeting by senior diplomats, not their foreign ministers. Iran, along with the US-led worldwide coalition, has been a major supporter of Baghdad in its war against ISIS.
Sunni Muslim Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shiite Iran have had no diplomatic ties since January 2016 and back opposing sides in several regional conflicts, including the wars in Yemen and Syria, as well as the Lebanese issue.
"We want to hold everyone responsible", Bahraini Foreign Minister Khalid bin Ahmed Al-Khalifa said during the deliberations.
This latest flare up between Saudi Arabia and Iran was sparked by a November 4 incident in which Iranian-supported Houthi rebels in Yemen fired a ballistic missile at Riyadh's global airport.
Speaking before Al-Jubeir at the 20-minute session broadcast live, Aboul-Gheit, the Arab league chief, was just as critical of Iran as the Saudi minister.
He further says, "The Arab world is divided and a lot of countries convened to Cairo today don't see eye to eye with Saudi Arabia on its ways and means or how it plans to confront Iran in the region".
The premier, who announced his shock resignation in Riyadh on November 4, has been out of the country for more than two weeks. Many Lebanese, including President Michel Aoun and Hezbollah Secretary General Hassan Nasrallah, have said they believe Hariri resigned under Saudi pressure. On Saturday, Mr Hariri was in Paris, where he met French president Emmanuel Macron.
It's not clear whether Sunday's Arab League meeting will translate into concrete action.
Saudi Arabia's Foreign Minister Adel Jubeir told the foreign ministers of the region that his country "will not stand by and will not hesitate to defend its security" in the face of Iranian "aggression".
The meeting was chaired by Djibouti's Foreign Minister and current chairman of the Arab Council of Foreign Ministers, Mahmoud Ali Yusuf, at the headquarters of the Arab League in Cairo and was attended by 15 ministers and six ministerial representatives. On Sunday evening Hezbollah's media unit posted on YouTube a video of Qassem Suleimani, the powerful head of Iran's Quds Force, meeting with what appeared to be Iraqi, Lebanese and Syrian fighters in the newly liberated Syrian town of Albu Kamal. It said Arab nations will provide details to the SC of Tehran's violations for arming Houthi rebels in Yemen.